By Dr.P.K.Sabu

Corona Curve / Dr.P.K.Sabu

About Dr.P.K.Sabu

Dr.P.K.Sabu / Narayana Gurukula

Dr.P.K.Sabu is a retired Professor of Geology, College of Engineering, Trivandrum, Govt. of Kerala. He has authored a popular science book 'Nanotechnology' in Malayalam. Dr.Sabu is involved in publishing numerous articles on Narayana Guru and translating the 'Psychology of Darsanamala', an elaborate commentary on 'Darsanamala' (Narayana Guru's philosophical work in Sanskrit by Guru Nitya Chaitanya Yati), based on lectures given in University of California.

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"Aggressive testing, contact tracing, cooked meals: How the Indian state of Kerala flattened its corona virus curve". Thus reported 'The Washington Post' (WaPo), about the success of the Indian State of Kerala in mitigating the spread of corona virus during the initial stages. The report was made available in 'washingtonpost.com' on 14th April 2020. Absolutely no doubt, the functioning of Govt. of Kerala as a well oiled machine, which made it possible for WaPo to notice the achievement, deserve appreciations of the world.

The report further states (quoting experts), "Kerala's pro-active measures, such as early detection and broad social support measures, could serve as a model for the rest of the country". In fact, given the density and diversity of population, India as a nation too is demonstrating many lessons to the world in corona control. So, if Kerala can be a model to the whole India, why not the state be a model to the entire world? Here enters a problem.

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I. The Unique Foundation of Kerala

Quoting the health minister of Kerala, the report continues: "Six states had reached out to Kerala for advice. But it may not be easy to replicate Kerala's lessons elsewhere in India". Why? Further we read in the report : "The state, where communists have held power for more than thirty years in several different governments since the 1950s, has invested heavily in public education and universal health care". The report then highlights the achievements of Kerala in terms of human development indices like literacy, neonatal mortality etc. linking it to the quoted statement.

Here, based on the WaPo report, we arrive at the logical conclusion that a simple transplantation of the modus operandi of Kerala Govt. is not sufficient to achieve a similar success in any other part of the world because the present steps require certain foundational support. Had this foundation is of a universal nature, it would have been easy to repeat the successful story elsewhere by simply adopting the steps taken by Govt. of Kerala. But the minister herself had expressed the practical difficulty in it, which implies that the foundation on which the present corona control measures are being taken is something unique of Kerala and it is not easy to replicate it, at least at this juncture. Further, the report says, this uniqueness is related to the communist rule in Kerala.

Now the world is passing through an unprecedented crisis of the century. To save humanity from this crisis and also to plan a post corona world, any success story from any part of the world should be a lesson and model for the rest of the world. And here we have a success story of Kerala, which, for reasons cited above, will not permit its replication elsewhere. The hindrance in replicating the experience of Kerala, as per the notion of WaPo report, is its uniqueness related to communism.

So what is this uniqueness? Is it inimitable and was it evolved along the guidelines of communist manifesto? Or, is there any other unique factor that contributed to the uniqueness of Kerala? Facts, views of scholars and snippets given below are cited as a frame of reference for further enquiry to find precise and scientific answers to these questions.

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II. The 'Kerala Model'

Considering Kerala as a model is not something suddenly emerged in the context of corona virus control; it has a history supported by documented evidences. The phrase 'Kerala Model' came in to being about half a century ago, and has been quoted and discussed by developmental experts all around the world, even in international platforms like the United Nations(UN). To quote the words of a Nobel Laureate on the 'what' and 'why' of this usage :- "The fact that the Indian state of Kerala has achieved impressively high life expectancy, lower fertility, high literacy and so on despite its low income level per head is certainly an achievement worth celebrating and learning from". These are words of Amartya Sen.1

Another quote help us to verify the veracity of linking 'Kerala Model' with UN. Centre for Development Studies (CDS) is a social science research institution in Kerala, which has affiliation to the Jawaharlal Nehru University, NewDelhi. A 2005 document of CDS2 says that "Kerala stands unique among the Indian States with a consistently higher level of human development comparable with that of many advanced countries but with a much lower per capita income. This was highlighted by a pioneering study undertaken by the CDS in the mid-seventies and sponsored by the Committee for Development Planning of the United Nations (UN). The UN study was in a sense a Human Development Report (HDR) of Kerala, the forerunner of the UNDP-HDR". So the 'Gods Own Country' (as Kerala is known in tourism map) had influenced the UN to learn something and try to explore the possibility of extrapolating the 'model' to the whole globe much before the corona virus started its exodus from a communist country and created an opportunity for the 'communists' of Kerala to mitigate it efficiently.

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1. Amartya Sen. (2000) : 'Development As Freedom'; Oxford University Press. P 48.
2. Human Development Report, Kerala. 2005

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III. The Enigma of 'Kerala Model'

It is quiet natural that something that even the UN has accepted as worth pondering over will catch the attention of lovers of humanity all around the world who are looking for alternative and better ways of living. Bill McKibben3, environmentalist and the author of 'The End of Nature' is one such. He expressed his wonder on the uniqueness of Kerala with the most suited title 'The Enigma of Green Kerala'. He writes:- "Demographically Kerala mirrors United States on one-seventieth cash... Kerala managed all the achievements of human development even though it's among the most densly crowded places on earth – the population of California squeezed into the size of Switzerland. It undercuts maxims about the world we consider almost intuitive: Rich people are healthier, rich people live longer, rich people have more opportunity for education, rich people have fewer children. We know all these things to be true - and yet there is a countercase, a demographic Himalaya suddenly rising on mental atlas. It's as if someone demonstrated in a lab that flame didn't necessarily need oxygen, or water could freeze at 60 degrees. It demands a new chemistry to explain it, a whole new science".

In the article he had quoted the observation of another American too: "Kerala is the one large human population on earth that currently meets the sustainability criteria of simultaneous small families and low consumptions, says Will Alexander of the Food First Institute in San Francisco".

So we have enough evidence to establish that there is something that makes Kerala unique, a uniqueness to the extent of being denoted by a unique phraseology. Once again we need to follow Bill McKibben to get the exact lessons he deduced from this uniqueness: "Kerala suggests a way out of two problems simultaneously – not only the classic development goal of more food in bellies and more shoes on feet, but also the emerging, equally essential task of living lightly on the earth, using fewer resources, creating less waste. Kerala demonstrates that a low level economy can create a decent life, abundant in the things-health, education, community-that are most necessary for us all. One–seventieth the income means one-seventieth the damage to the planet. So, on balance, if Kerala and the United States manage to achieve the same physical quality of life, Kerala is the vastly more successful society.

Kerala does not tell us precisely how to remake the world. But it does shake up our sense of what's obvious, and it offers a pair of messages to the First world. One is that of sharing works. The second and even more important lesson is that some of our fears about simpler living are unjustified. Kerala implies that there is a point where rich and poor might meet and share a decent life, and surely it offers new data for a critical question of our age. How much is enough?".

So the lessons are clear. To apply the lessons in any other part of the world, the science of 'making flame without oxygen' has to be properly understood and it requires a unique science to explain a unique phenomenon. There is such a unique science behind the enigma of Kerala – a science with many dimensions: political, socio-cultural, biological, philosophical and cognitive.

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3. Bill McKibben. (1995). "The Enigma of Green Kerala". 'Double Take', Summer 1995. Duke University.

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IV. The 'How' of Kerala Model: Filtering Level 1

One of the questions that forms the basis for this narration is to look into the veracity of the claim that Kerala's unique foundation of the corona virus control is related to the policies of the 'communist' government alone. Here we can't ignore the history of evolution of Kerala. Once again Bill McKibben comes for clarification, quoting an authority: "Developmental policy in the whole world is generally considered to begin in the 1940s, 'says historian Michael Tharakan'. But you can see the roots of it right from the beginning of the 19th century in Kerala". So the roots of Kerala model goes back to 19th century, at a time when nobody had heard about the so called 'October revolution' of 1917 which inspired the communist movement in India.

Further we read: "Though Christian missionaries and the British started the process, it took the militancy of the caste-reform groups and then budding left to spread education widely. The first great boom was in 1920s and 1930s, particularly in southern Kerala, where the princes acceded to popular demands for ever more schools. When leftists dominated politics in the 1960s, they spread the educational program into Malabar".

The above passages give clues to trace the trajectory of Kerala from nineteenth century till the formation of the state of Kerala in 1956. We get a picture of the contributions of four agencies in shaping today's Kerala – Christian missionaries, the Brirish, caste-reform groups and the budding left. A significant point to be noted here, to assess whether the uniqueness of Kerala is related to communists or some other movement, is the period 1960s when the left parties started making policy decisions and implementing them. (Here Malabar refers to the northern region of the present state of Kerala. The southern Kerala, before independence fell under the Princely state Thiruvithamkoor).

Before proceeding further in our search for the factors behind the uniqueness of Kerala, we need a first level of filtering to find the dominant factor from among the four factors mentioned above. No doubt, the role of Christian missionaries by way of their initiations in education are to be recalled with reverence. But, had the missionaries been the most influential driving force of 'Kerala Model', this usage itself would not have been in record, because missionaries rendered their service in a wider space on the globe, with the patronage of the Empire, and no other place had been launched in to an orbital plane similar to that of Kerala. Similarly, had there been a 'Commonwealth Model' at par with Kerala, there would have been some sense for giving the whole credit to the British.

So, after the first level of filtering we arrive at the caste–reform groups and the left as the two possible indigenous engines that pulled Kerala into the current track. Which, among these two, is to be singled out as the unique, enigmatic electricity that powered the 'Kerala Model', and what should be the norm and logic in that selection?

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V. Communism in India : Fixing Nail with a Screw driver?

The reference of 'communist' government as the causative factor of 'Kerala Model' necessitates an assessment of the potential of communism as a tool to fix the India specific issues and how the cultural ambience of Kerala was modified by the 'communist' movements.

"A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre". Karl Marx and Frederick Engels wrote these lines in 1848, as the opening sentence of Communist Manifesto. Did they consider that the Indian soil has the suitable fertility to transplant their 'Eurocentric' theory - founded on German philosophy, French socialism and English economics - and bear fruits in India? A logical answer is 'no'. Had the answer been 'yes', there would not have been a Marxian theory of Asiatic Mode of Production (AMP), different from Europe, referring to India. A quotation from Wikipedia on AMP will help us to assess the potential of communism as the cause of Kerala's peculiarities. "In his articles on India written between 1852 and 1858 Marx outlined some of the basic characteristics of the AMP that prevailed in India. In these articles he indicated the absence of private ownership of land (self-sustaining units or communes), the unity between agriculture and manufacturing (handloom, spinning wheel), the absence of strong commodity production and exchange, and the stabilizing role of Indian society and culture against invasions, conquests, and famines".

So even from the perspective of Karl Marx (whether this perspective is acceptable for Indian Marxists is a different issue!), Indian society and culture has a stabilizing role. At the same time Indian society has a century old blot on it, the 'segmentation of society in to groups whose membership was determined by birth' i.e. the caste system. Trying to fix this 'Asiatic' problem with the Marxian tool of 'class struggle' is like making attempts to fix a nail or broken pipe with a screw driver. Here comes the significance of the Kerala 'hammer', the caste-reforms groups, which made successful blows on this age old custom, well before this evil custom was legally banned by the Constitution of India. How it all happened? Let us follow the 'enigma' to see how Kerala transformed, who transformed it and what was the driving force behind it. Such an observation is inevitable to make a second level filtering between communists and the indigenous groups powered by indigenous philosophical weapons.

See the transformation of Kerala: "It is more complete than, say, the transformation achieved by the civil rights movement in American South. Looking backward, it is clear that some of this epic, and mostly peaceful, change can be traced to new economic conditions. Even Tharakan, a devoult rationalist says, Though these changes had an economic base, they were mediated at the level of ethics, of moral dictums. Or, in plainer English, Kerala too had its Lincolns, its Martin Luther Kings, and to understand this quick and peaceful miracle – and perhaps to repeat it elsewhere – we need to catch their temper, see the ideas they set loose".

So there was a quick and peaceful miracle in Kerala, mediated at the level of ethics and moral dictums. Here we have a clue to the science behind the formation of flame without oxygen, the flame of progress without the oxygen of money or revolutionary political ideologies. Another passage will help us to catch the temper of it, to see the ideas behind it and to learn from the 'Lincolns and Martin Luther Kings' of Kerala:

"Caste did not crumble immediately, however. Sri Narayana Guru and many other reformers spent their lives campaigning for more rights – more opportunities, the right to enter and worship at all temples-for the various castes. But all the prosaic struggle for civil rights went on an atmosphere of spirituality, more than the simple assertion of power by a group too large to be ignored, it was also the assertion of a moral ideal, a view of dignity against the oppression both of feudalism and of faith. 'One caste, one religion, one God for man', was Sri Narayana Guru's rallying cry". Specific aspects of this transformation, in a scholarly medium, supported by empirical evidences, are given in a recent study by P.Chandramohan.4

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4. Chandramohan.P. (2016). 'Developmental Modernity in Kerala: Narayana Guru, SNDP Yogam and Social Reforms'. Tulika Books.

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VI. The 'Chemistry' of Kerala Model

Now the ingredients and methodology of 'Kerala Model' are crystallized and segregated. The key words of this chemistry are caste–reform movements, peaceful transformation, ethics, moral ideals and dictums and spirituality. More importantly, the word 'materialism' not only did not appear, but also placed as an irrelevant factor in the conception, birth and growth of the entire process. A specific name of a 'Kerala Lincoln or Martin Luthar King' and a specific moral dictum too appear in the above passage: Guru Narayana and his moral dictum 'One caste, One religion, one God for man'.

Now, having fixed the general frame of 'Kerala Model', specific elements within it can be examined so that the steps to imitate it in other parts of the world can be formulated. We have already seen that the rivulets that coalesced to form the main stream of 'Kerala Model' started trickling down in nineteenth century itself. Without leaving the reader for any ambiguity, the author of the 'enigma of Kerala' has recorded a master rivulet in terms of person, place and time. After mentioning the birth of Guru Narayana (he uses the vernacular usage 'Sri Narayana Guru') he writes: "As a young man, he renounced worldly attachments and began to wander, sitting in caves with legs crossed and meditating, fasting, and consorting with lepers. As more people sought him out for healing or advice, he and his disciples felt the need for a regular temple for worshipping Shiva. At a beautiful spot in a river near Aruvippuram, he had his followers build a small canopy of coconut leaves and mango leaves over an altar on a rock jutting out in water. The year was 1888". Aruvippuram is a village accessible from Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of Kerala.

That small canopy was not just a centre for idolism of Shiva for worship of local people; behind it there was a vision of universal canopy for the entire humanity. Following words, inscribed on the earthen walls of the temple encapsulates Guru Narayana's vision of oneness:

          Devoid of dividing walls, Of caste and race, Or hatred of rival faith
          We all live here, In brotherhood
          Such, know this place be! This Model Foundation!

As a token of endorsement of this philosophy of oneness as the motto of India, the Honorable President of India quoted this mantra in the opening session of the joint Parliament session of the present Narendra Modi Government on 20th June 2019.

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VII. Guru Narayana : The 'Martin Luther King of Kerala' or More?

Fine. But who is Guru Narayana (c.1855-1928)? What makes him different from all other dedicated 'Lincolns and Martin Luther Kings of Kerala' to the extent of even people from the other side of the globe, like Bill McKibben, considering him as worth giving the credit of a unique role, in terms of the contributions in the evolution of Kerala to an enigmatic level? In plain terms, Guru Narayana himself is an enigma.

From Marxist's perspective Guru Narayana is the 'master sculptor of Kerala Renaissance'5 or 'father of the reformation movement in Kerala'6. But that status alone is not a justification for placing him in a global context. So let us have a look at some more comments which help us to get a clear perspective of him and also to see the difference between the lopsided materialistic perspective and more balanced approaches in imbibing a personality like Guru Narayana. One assessment is that of the greatest minds of Kerala in the context of the centenary celebrations of a leading daily, not only of Malayalam, but also among the vernaculars of India, 'Malayala Manorama'. The panel headed by C. Achutha Menon, former chief minister of Kerala (who too was a communist) picked him as the only personality who can be placed uniquely at the summit, without a second thought, from among those who channelized the history of Kerala during the century from 1888 to 1998. They gave him the title "Eternal Symbol of Human Dignity".

Still, we can't blame anyone if s/he raises a doubt about the norm of universal application of "eternal symbol of human dignity" on the ground that it can be simply an exaggerated glorification of a Keralite by Keralites. We have the opinions of two Nobel Laureates to clarify this point. Rabindranath Tagore, after visiting Narayana Guru recorded: "I have been touring different parts of the world. During these travels I have had the good fortune to come into contact with several saints and maharshis. But I am frank to admit that I have never come across one who is spiritually greater than Swamy Sree Narayana Guru of Malayalam. Nay a person who is at par with him in spiritual attainment. I shall never forget his radiant face illuminated by the self-effulgent light of divine glory and his yogic eyes, whose gaze fixed at a far remote point in the distant horizon".

Romain Rolland, the French writer and recipient of Nobel prize in 1915, never visited Guru Narayana, but had the greatness and integrity to have an in depth assessment (than many Indians!) before writing - "Sree Narayana Guru was, one might say, a Jnanin of action, a grand religious intellectual, who had a keen living sense of the people and of social necessities7". A jnanin is a person who is an embodiment of wisdom.

It is interesting to see how Guru Narayana appear when looked through the lens of a prophetic coloration. Rev. Bishop Dr. Geevarughese Mar Theodosius of Marthoma Church (who had his doctorate from McMaster University, Canada, on a topic related to Guru Narayana) see Guru Narayana as a 'manifestation of the concept of prophet, envisioned by Kerala'. C. F. Andrews - a Christian Missionary and close associate of Mahathma Gandhi, visited the Guru on 22nd November 1922. He then wrote a letter to Romain Rolland, about the visit. Wikipedia (in the page on Charles Freer Andrews) has quoted a line from the same: "I saw our Christ walking on the shores of the Arabian sea, in the attire of a Hindu sanyasin." Mahatma Gandhi too visited the Guru in his Mutt and had discussions on various issues. Another 'prophetic' reference to him was given by P.Parameswaran of Bharatheeya Vicharakendram, with the title of his book - "Sree Narayana Guru - The Prophet of Renaissance".

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5. Govinda Pillai.P (2003). 'Kerala Renaissance- A Marxist Perspective' (In Malayalam). Chintha Publishers. P 150.
6. Govinda Pillai.P. "SNDP-NSS unity will flop" The Hindu Dt.18-02-2005.
7. Romain Rolland. (1930). "La Vie de Ramakrisna". Librarie Stock. Paris.

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VIII. Guru Narayana : A Combination of Jesus Christ and Martin Luther King?

Bill McKibben saw a Martin Luther King in Guru Narayana and for C.F.Andrews he was Christ. The glory of Jesus is in the domain of prophets and the greatness of Martin Luther King is in social domain. So is Guru Narayana a 'two in one' combination of Jesus Christ and Martin Luther King, representing these two domains? His contemporaries have an answer. Yogis never pass away, they simply attain Samadhi, find or reach their proper abode. Here is a portion of the report of samadhi of Guru Narayana appeared in Sanadhanadharmam, the organ of the Theosophical Society. This will help us to get an idea of the enigmatic personality of Guru Narayana. "To progressive Kerala, He is a Pathanjali in Yoga, Sankara in wisdom, Manu in governance, Buddha in sacrifice, Prophet Nabi in determination and Jesus in humility. Narayana Rishi, who combined in Himself all the great qualities of all these great men lived 72 years on this earth in the guise of a human being and went back to His heavenly abode".

Guru Narayana lived in Kerala. As per available records, his visits were limited to the neighbouring states of India and to the neighbouring country Sri Lanka. In all these places he left a record of his influence, preserved today, not only at the conceptual level of people but as physical monuments also. He was known in Geneva during his life time itself through the articles published in Sufi Quarterly by his disciple P. Natarajan. Later this disciple became the Guru of Garry Davis, who declared himself as the first 'World Citizen' and even contested in the US Presidential election of 1988, as a means to bring his 'One World' ideology to public domain. Garry Davis learned the philosophical foundation for this universal outlook from Guru. After narrating his first encounter with his Guru, Garry wrote:

"I was later to learn that Dr. Natarajan was the disciple of the great teacher Shri Narayana Guru, of Travancore, South India, who, when died in 1928, was mourned by millions of followers throughout India and the Far East"8. These words prove that Guru Narayana has the potential to influence a lover of humanity to contest an election of a particular country, but for a universal cause! Indeed that too is an enigma!

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8. Garry Davis. (1961). 'My Country is The World'. Macdonald & Co. London. P 91.

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IX. The 'Chemistry' of Kerala Model : Beyond the Socio-Cultural Domain

In the section on 'Kerala Model', its driving forces were referred with certain key words like ethics, moral ideals, peaceful method, spiritual environment etc. A sculpture is the concrete manifestation of the abstract concepts of the sculptor; the Marxists of Kerala recognize Guru Narayana as the 'master sculptor' of the transformation process referred as 'Kerala Renaissance'. Naturally, Kerala renaissance too has certain inherent concepts which are manifested as culture, lifestyle and the external physical parameters of human development indices. To put it in the words of Fritjof Capra9 : "The evolution of a society, including the evolution of its economic system, is closely linked to changes in the value system that underlies all its manifestations. The values a society lives by, will determine its world view and religious institutions, its scientific enterprise and technology, and its political and economic arrangements".

In evolving a value system, philosophy play a crucial role. Atmopadesasatakam (One Hundred Verses of Self-Instruction), a text in Malayalam, is one of the most important philosophical work of Guru Narayana. A free translation of verse 24 read:

         What is known as that person or this person, when carefully considered,
         is the one undifferentiated form of the primeval Self.
         Whatever one does for the happiness of one's own self
         should also include the happiness of others.

The resonation of the first part of this verse with the 'Big-Bang' theory, which states that the entire universe was formed out of a single explosion, is an example for the compatibility of his philosophy with modern science. Second part form the basis to develop a social ethics rooted in oneness, which is encapsulated in moral dictums like 'One caste, one religion, one God for man'.

Guru Narayana's philosophy of oneness is not static, it is organic and dynamic. Guru visualized the manifestation of oneness, in individual and social life, as compassion and dharma (righteousness). He himself had clarified and elaborated these aspects in other works. (To his credit, there are about 60 works in three languages - Malayalam, Sanskrit and Tamil).

In Anukampa-dasakam (Ten Verses on Compassion), grace, love and mercy are presented as "the star that is life's savior". A revolutionary nine syllabled charm, which can be chanted by lovers of humanity all around the globe, irrespective of affiliations to any region, religion or political bias is also given in this work - "He who loves is he who really lives". In this work, Narayana Guru place Krishna, Budha, Sankara, Jesus, Prophet Nabi and Shaiva Gurus of South India as personified manifestations of compassion. He considered dharma, in general, as the 'Supreme God' and the 'greatest wealth'. In specific aspects of dharma, Guru Narayana endorse the five dharmas of Budha: not hurting any living being, being truthful, not stealing, giving up liquor and being chaste.

To consider a philosophy as living, it has to be applied in daily life, both in private and public domains. One can practice the values and wisdom in private life and can attain freedom. But that will not earn bread. Bread without freedom and freedom without bread are equally lopsided and so, by treating both the material and spiritual aspects of life unitively, we need a scheme to strike the balance between bread and freedom. Narayana Guru has such a model and that is his concept of Unitive Life.

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9. Fritjof Kapra. (1982). 'The Turning Point'. Flamingo. P 196.

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X. The 'Neuro Science' of Unitive Life

An observation of Karl Marx about the "stabilizing role of Indian society and culture" has already been quoted. In a sense this peculiarity was something absent in the European countries which Marx predicted to be in the process of transforming from capitalism to communism. (Looking back , monitoring and assessing this prediction from a distance of 150 years can be used as a norm to assess the scientificity of Marxian predictions.) What is the science behind the Indian culture with which it manifests the "stabilizing role"?

Social scientists can observe cultural aspects, but contributions of psychologists and neurologists are essential to get the 'why' of it. The most apt specialists to explain it are neuroscientists, especially one who has the versatile expertise in a spectrum of fields like medical science, history, myths and the scriptures of world religions. Such an expert can link culture with the behavior pattern related to human brain. Leonard Shlain, who did an extraordinary work using the 'split brain' perspective says that "the key to my thesis lies in the unique way the human nervous system developed"10. Based on his extensive study on almost all cultural traditions of the world, he wrote: "I propose that a holistic, simultaneous, synthetic, and concrete view of the world are the essential characteristics of a feminine outlook; linear, sequential, reductionist and abstract thinking is masculine. Here, 'feminine' and 'masculine' are not gender specific, but denotes the dominant traits related to the particular hemisphere of the human brain; 'feminine' world view being originated in the right brain and 'masculine' in the left brain. But "although these represent opposite perceptual modes, every individual is generously endowed with all the features of both"11. Naturally every cultural tradition also inherits both, with dominance of either of it or striking a balance between the two.

Here is the 'neurological' assessment of the Indian culture by Dr. Shlain, which serves as a scientific explanation for the somewhat unique 'sociological' observation of Karl Marx. "A genderless Brahman, sexually explicit art, important goddesses, the worship of nature, and the practice of yoga to attain spirituality, all suggest a culture with strong right-brain values. Hindus venerate the lingam and yoni, sculptural forms that represent, respectively, the equality of the male and female generative forces"12. (here the term Brahman should not be confused with Brahmin, the former represents the Absolute in Indian philosophy and the later is related to the sociological peculiarity of India, the caste system).

Unitive life is much more than the qualities of world view of right brain. It is an applied field of what is known in India as Brahmavidya. This is the Science of the Absolute with its own ontology, epistemology and axiology. At the same time, there is nothing wrong to consider the right brain qualities like the holistic, simultaneous, synthetic, and concrete views as attributes of Unitive life.

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10. Leonard Shlain. (1998). 'The Alphabet Versus The Goddess'. Penguin/Compass. Page 3
11. ibid. Page 1.
12. ibid. Page 166.

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XI. The 'History' of Unitive Life

Why India has such a holistic view? There are historical reasons. The following passage will explain it: "Natural and impenetrable barriers have preserved India in such a way as to give the land a personality all its own. This peculiarly personalized isolation applies all the more forcibly when we come to think of the extreme south-west of India, to the Malabar Coast where the Guru Narayana, like Sankara, lived and taught against a background of prehistoric Siva worship.

The west coast remains to this day a zone of life expression which contains the remnants of all the varied stratifications of history like out-croppings of rocks side by side as it were. Disturbances originating and affecting the north of the Indian mass were absorbed by the main bulk of the country long before the shocks reached the southern toe of Mother India: while sea-borne social influences were sufficiently gradual to be more or less negligible in the far south, leaving only small clotted ganglia of distinguishable social units13.

And what Guru Narayana did in modern time is : "In the far-off background of South Indian history, hidden away and forgotten, overlaid by later formulations, was a valuable heritage of wisdom which the Guru's keen eye and clear memory recognized and revived. In this we touch a stratum of universal values"14. It is this universal values that make the unitive life highly relevant in the context of looking for a new world view during the days of corona.

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13. Nataraja Guru. (2003). 'The Word of the Guru'. DK Printworld, New Delhi. P 137.
14. ibid. P 180. (This book was originally published in 1952)

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XII. Unitive Life As A Development Model

Unitive life is of qualitative nature. How can it be applied in mundane affairs? Is there any guidelines for it? Yes, and like certain unique features we have already touched, the context of formulation of this guideline too has a unique nature. In 1928 a group of devotees and followers approached Guru Narayana seeking permission to start a pilgrimage to the place of their personified God, a tradition in India where a Guru is considered as God. He granted permission, but stipulated how it should not be. Deviating from the conventional notion of a pilgrimage and its associated religious flavor, he asked the chief of the delegation to write down eight topics - education, cleanliness, devotion, organization, agriculture, trade, entrepreneurship and technology - and instructed to conduct expert lectures on these topics, pilgrims should attend these and practice it in their life. To use a modern terminology, this pilgrimage, known as Sivagiri Pilgrimage, implies a 'development model'.

Development experts speak about economic and non-economic capitals. The first four topics fall under the non economic capital required for the cultural and value oriented growth of humans and the last four relate to the economic capital unavoidable for material progress. The substratum of this ashtanga marga (eight fold path) of development is the philosophical capital of unitive life , rooted in the non duality of physical and spiritual aspects of life. As noted by John Spiers, in the foreward to reference 13, who had the insight to penetrate in to the subtle aspects of the teachings of Guru Narayana, "here materialism is not rejected as a proper view in its proper place, but it is balanced by other aspects of human life". Unlike the left brain oriented, masculine, GDP based development index, here a balanced approach is envisioned giving due consideration to the right brain oriented, feminine attributes too.

The mindset to consider environment and ecology as 'scientific' too need a right brain holistic perspective of life and the world. Guru Narayana once asked one of his disciples to talk about the greed of the people and he himself dictated the theme. A passage from it - "Don't you think that the animal called man is worse than the rest of the animals in this respect? The desires of animals in the forest are safely controlled, by natural instinct, from all abnormal excesses. The elephant is simple and fat, and does not need tonics or treatment to keep it so. The jackal hides in the woods all day and comes out only at night when all is quiet. It does not take much food - just a few fresh crabs, and the clear stream water, reflecting the moonlight, to drink-and it is content. It enjoys its life with its nightly music, and you can see that it is none the worse for this sort of life - its neck is as plump and glossy as a pillow. The animals have no exaggerated needs like man. Man trots about the earth as a veritable demon of destruction. As he marches, he carries behind him a trial of devastation. He cuts down the trees: and blasts and bleeds in to paleness the green beauty of Nature for the sake of the plantations and smoky towns and factories which his bridled desires necessitate... The rest of nature would be thankful if, in the process of self destruction, man would have the good sense to destroy himself if he must, alone, leaving the rest of creation at least to the peace which is its birthright".15

Sree Narayana Guru

15. ibid. Page 12.

Sree Narayana Guru

XIII. The 'Biology' of Corona control

As stated in section III, we are looking at the 'Kerala model' of corona virus control from different perspectives, including biological. A pertinent question to be answered to arrive at a scientific conclusion on this issue is related not only to the low fatality in Kerala, but to the low 'basic reproductive number' also. The basic reproductive number is a measure of number of persons getting infected from a single corona infected person. Kerala stands (as on 1st June, 2020) with a remarkable 0.45 against the global number of 3. When the virus and the treatment protocols remains almost the same, why Kerala has a different footing? Much credit goes to the Govt. of Kerala for the efficient planning and implementation of control measures. But is it the only reason? Study of virus and research on treatments fall under the domain of science and so let us track scientists to get an all inclusive answer.

In 1931, Albert Einstein16, while explaining the 'the world as I see it', remarked that "the most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. Whoever does not know It and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, it is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed". These words, not of an Eastern mystic but the most brilliant scientist of twentieth century in Western tradition, are the testimony of a paradigm shift in science, a drastic change in the world view between physics of 19th century and that of 20th century. Another scientist wrote about what he found in this shift as: "The new concepts in physics have brought about a profound change in our world view; from the mechanistic conception of Descarts and Newton to a holistic and ecological view, a view which I have found to be similar to the views of mystics of all ages and traditions"17

Physics being the science that reveals nature from the atomic to the cosmic dimension, the impact and influence of findings of physics are not just limited to other fields of natural sciences, but it spreads to all domains of human enterprises, or it has to be so, to the extent of considering an academic field obsolete, if it fails to rebuild its basic postulates in accordance with the paradigm shifts of physics. "Modern scientific thought - in physics, biology and psychology - is leading to a view of reality that comes close to the views of mystics and of many traditional cultures, in which knowledge of the human mind and body and the practice of healing are integral parts of natural philosophy and of spiritual discipline. A holistic approach to health and healing will therefore be in harmony with many traditional views, as well as consistent with modern scientific theories"18

But those who have studied the influence of the changing world view in what is known as 'modern' medicine says that the medical field of Western origin is still lagging behind to cope with the holistic concepts of new physics, started with Einstein in the beginning of 20th century and further underwent a drastic revolution through the findings of the branch of physics known as 'quantum mechanics'. Even the modern holistic concepts of biology are not assimilated and applied in medical science. See an example. A cell biologist Bruce H. Lipton19 says that "biologists are becoming increasingly aware that animals have co-evolved and continue to co-exist, with diverse assemblages of micro-organisms that are required for normal health and development. Ironically, in recent years, we have been taught to wage war against micro-organisms with everything from antibacterial soap to antibiotics... Antibiotics are indiscriminate killers; they kill bacteria that are required for our survival as efficiently as they kill harmful bacteria".

Dr. Lipton, a scientist, has empirical evidence to support his case, based on case studies related to iatrogenic illness, illness resulting from medical treatment. One citation is a research paper of Starfield. B, published in Journal of American Medical Association [284(4):483-485] in 2000, which found iatrogenic illness as the third-leading cause of death in United States. When another study investigated the issue in 2003, the conclusion is that "iatrogenic illness is actually the leading cause of death in the United States and that adverse reactions to prescription drugs are responsible for more than 300,000 deaths a year"20. Quotes Lipton.

(These statistics need not be interpreted literally as a 'regressive attitude' against all achievements of modern medicine. Its only a pointer to the need of switching over to a complimentary mode of health care, incorporating the best of all schools of medicine, East and West, traditional and modern).

But what is the relevance of such opinions of scientists in the context of probing the reasons behind the comparatively negligible death rates in Kerala? To make it sensible, we need to follow what comes after the above revelation of a scientist of the West. We read:

"These are dismaying statistics, especially for a healing profession that has arrogantly dismissed three thousand years of effective Eastern medicine as unscientific, even though it is based on a deeper understanding of the universe. For thousands of years, long before Western scientists discovered the laws of quantum physics, Asians have honored energy as the principal factor contributing to health and well being". His usage of 'energy' has a connotation to Einstein's equation, E=mc2, which forms the core of the scientific revolution of twentieth century, by equating energy (E), with mass (m) and velocity of light (c).

Kerala has a rich tradition of the holistic way of health and healing of the East, mainly in the prominent Indian System of medicine, Ayurveda. This knowledge was not limited to the geographical units of Kerala or India, but reached the global repository of knowledge through West. One name, and his contribution to one book is worth mentioning as an evidence of this claim. The book is Hortus Malabaricus, a botanical treatise on the medicinal properties of flora of 17th century Kerala. This book was compiled by the Dutch Governor of Malabar, Hendrik van Rheede and was published in Amsterdam between 1678 and 1693. The ethno-medical information presented in Hortus Malabaricus was extracted from palm-leaf manuscripts maintained by Itty Achuthan, an Ayurvedic physician of Kerala. Volume 1 of Hortus Malabaricus contains an original note by Itty Achuthan, dated 20 April 1675, in which he describes his contribution to the work. Itty Achuthan is credited with having dictated the material, in his native Malayalam language, which was then translated into Latin. Carl Ludwig Blume, a German-Dutch botanist of 19th century honored Itty Achuthan by naming one of the plants as Achudemia.

This tradition of indigenous health care, healing and the associated ethnic food habits existed in Kerala before the birth of Karl Marx in 1818! How this tradition influence the immune response and how this immune response catalyse the efficiency of medicines, require a detailed study, against the background of 'same virus, same medicine but negligible fatality' of Kerala. Ayurvedic preparations (and homoeo medicines also) are now being extensively used in Kerala as a preventive step for the purpose of defending against the intrusion of corona virus.

A very relevant information in this context is the successful usage of Ayurveda in mitigating the 19th century Plague at Kanchipuram, a place in Tamil Nadu, one of the neighboring states of Kerala, by Swamy Govindananda, one of the disciples of Guru Narayana. This disciple mastered Ayurveda from his Guru. (Dr.Palpu, the founder of the pioneer renaissance organization of Kerala, centered on Guru Narayana, was in charge of the control of this pandemic in Mysore, another Indian state).

Sree Narayana Guru

16. 'Albert Einstein: Ideas and Opinions'. (1954). Rupa Publications. New Delhi. P 11.
17. Frijitof Capra. (1982). 'The turning Point'. Flamingo. P xvii
18. ibid. P 333.
19. Bruce. H. Lipton. (2020) 'The Biology of Belief'. Hay House India. P 13.
20. Null. G. et al. (2003) "Death By Medicine". New York, Nutrition Institute of America.

Sree Narayana Guru

XIV. The Unique Factor: Filtering Level 2

We have already made a first level filtering in section IV to fix the dominant factor underlying the uniqueness of Kerala, which enabled the state to control the pandemic in an efficient way and, at the same time, reported to be a not a so easy task to replicate elsewhere. What remained after the first filtering are two factors - the communists (as claimed in the WaPo report) and what was noted as the 'caste reform groups' by the experts who studied about 'Kerala Model'. A detailed picture of the value system that formed the foundation for the 'caste reforms' were given. Enough evidences were also placed to go one step further - to show that the transformation of Kerala in late 19th and early 20th centuries were not just cast eradication alone. Cast eradication was just the visible and tangible external manifestation, but it was founded on, and part of, a holistic, synthetic and ecological perspective of universe and life.

Now the next step is to examine the role of 'communists' in shaping today's Kerala. The correction given in the WaPo report itself is a good starting point. Originally it stated that "The state, where communists have held power for more than thirty years in several different governments since the 1950s, has invested heavily in public education and universal health care". After a couple of days, this statement was corrected to the effect that the period of 'communist' rule have not been consecutive - "communist parties in Kerala have alternated with other parties in power". Before going for further filtering, one more correction is needed: Sensu stricto, Kerala never had 'communist' governments. Ever since the formation of the State in 1956, Kerala have been ruled only by coalition governments. Each coalition consists of a dozen or more political parties. So there were governments with communist party as the major coalition partner and headed by them. And now, during the days of corona too, such a coalition govt., the Left Democratic Front (LDF) governs Kerala, and are efficiently managing the pandemic.

As stated in the beginning, there is absolutely no doubt about the efficiency of this government in mitigating the impact of the pandemic. This narration is not centered on questioning the veracity of the efficiency or sincerity of the present LDF government. It is a kind of 'investigation' in to the unique foundational factor of Kerala that made the efficiency to bear fruits, and without which, its replication becomes impractical, even if we admit that the most efficient, or even the only efficient government in the world is the present govt. of Kerala.

The reason cited for this impracticability of replication is the handful of social indicators and because the 'communists' "has invested heavily in public education and universal health care". True, Kerala has an inimitable record in both the 'Kerala Model' social indicators and in infrastructure related to health and education. But is there any empirical basis for 'communists' to take the whole credit of the achievements of Kerala and how ethical is such a claim?

A simple logic is sufficient to reveal the fallacy of such an 'exclusive' claim. If this claim is genuine, it is quiet natural to expect the same level of 'uniqueness' in other states where governments were run by communists. But there is another state, West Bengal, which holds the Indian record for the longest period of governance consecutively by the same political alliance. Unlike the left democratic alliance of Kerala, West Bengal has 'pure' left alliance. Communists ruled this state for 34 years, that too under the same chief minister, Jyothi Basu, consecutively for 21 years. No other Indian state had such a stable and congenial ambience to implement the policies of a political party. Here we can put two simple logical questions, borne out of commonsense, that help us to make the second filtering.

Communist parties of India are not local or regional in their functioning. They have an organizational structure at national level, where policies are framed for the whole nation. Had the dominant factor behind the uniqueness of Kerala been the intermittent 'fallacious' communist governments, why the sensu stricto communist governments that governed West Bengal consecutively for 34 years failed to attract the world economists with any speciality of their own, in spite of the same uniform national policies being implemented in both the states? The communist regime of West Bengal fell in 2011, like a castle of sand built on a beach. A supplementary question that naturally arises is, why the people of West Bengal chose to pull the three decade communist rule down? (These two questions can be equally extended to another Indian state, Tripura, where communist governments were in power for 35 years in two terms. This state also had a single person as chief minister, consecutively for 20 years).

These clarifications can be sought in a different language also. T.M.Thomas Isaac, the finance minister of Kerala and his co-author Rajeev Sadanandan21, quoting Jeffry, says that "good health indicators achieved by Kerala have been attributed to both supply-side interventions by successive governments and other agencies and demand-side interventions by social movements". To reframe the question, why the supply-side interventions of communist governments of the other two states did not bear fruits comparable to Kerala and why no such demand-side interventions evolved in those states of India?

Sree Narayana Guru

21. Thomas Isaac, TM & Rajeev Sadanandan. (2020). COVID-19, "Public Health System and Local Governance in Kerala". Economic and Political Weekly: Vol.55, No.21.

Sree Narayana Guru

XV. Communism : Seed Planting and Grafting

A metaphor, and chronology of events, help us to decipher the answer. The metaphor is a horticultural technique known as grafting. In one type of grafting tender shoots from the top of a plant (scion) is joined to the roots and bottom portion of another plant (root stock). Root stocks need to have a healthy root system to support the growth of the scion.

The state of Kerala came in to existence in 1956, the first democratically elected government headed by a communist chief minister came in to power in 1957. Consequent on its dismissal by the President of India, this rule prematurely ended after two years. The next 'communist government', a coalition of seven political parties, assumed power in 1967.

Here we need a recall of the report cited in section II, particularly the period of study when the uniqueness of Kerala was noted for the first time. It was in nineteen seventies. Commonsense and reason are sufficient to have an awareness about the nature of social changes and time durations required for such changes. Unlike many bloodshed revolutions recorded in history, the purpose of which were basically to capture power rather than the well being of people, the silent revolution of Kerala, as we have already seen, was mediated on peace, ethics, moral dictums and spirituality. It was a slow permeation spread over decades.

Though the process started earlier, the single event that triggered momentum, the consecration of Shiva at Aruvippuram in 1888, was mentioned in the 'Enigma of Kerala'. So, the fabric of life with a unique value system, which attracted the world, had evolved over half a century during pre-independent period of India. It is on this foundation, democratic governments of former princely states were elected after India became Independent in 1947. It took another 10 years to form the state of Kerala and the 'communist government' to assume power. The assessment of Robin Jeffry, a Canadian researcher and an acknowledged scholar on Kerala, supports this logic. According to him, the politics behind the 'Kerala Model' refers to the distribution of power and wealth from 1880s to 1950s22.

So the picture of 'Kerala tree' can be drawn like this: Its roots are the value system, extracting nutrients from the soil of tradition. The trunk is the fabric of life; offshoots are the manifested and quantifiable aspects of life. One branch is the material or physical life consisting of all social institutions. On this particular branch, the scion of communism was grafted. Absolutely no doubt, this communist scion also had growth of leaves, flowers and fruits on the grafted part, in the form of certain policy decisions and their implementation, particularly in the health and education sector. But, that too was a continuation of what originated in the beginning of 19th century, by the then princely states, especially Thiruvithamkoor. But the scion on just one branch of the tree is not the tree, its other branches, trunk and roots constitute a different system and it is this system that supports Kerala without much excessive cultural habits and social pathology. And it is this social fabric that contribute the people's participation and awareness, two much needed factors for the successful implementation of any governmental programme.

Sree Narayana Guru

22. Cited in - M.A.Oommen. "Kerala is no model of development". The Hindu Businessline. Dt.01-03-2017.

Sree Narayana Guru

XVI. Communism in Kerala : Progressive or Regressive?

In section V, a hint to the potential of communism in solving issues related to India was made. Now an assessment of the specific aspects related to Kerala too is inevitable to arrive at the unique formational ideology of present Kerala.

Contrary to this grafting technique of communism in Kerala, communism in other states of India were planted on an alien unstable soil. The seeds sprouted, the tree grew, but without bearing flowers or fruits, the tree withered. Here a very important question arises about the methodology of 'revolution' after the communist movement started in Kerala. Did they follow the unique peaceful, ethical, moral and spiritual course to take Kerala towards a new direction? Here is one sentence from the 'Text book of Marxism' by the top most ideologist of Indian communism and the first chief minister of Kerala, E.M. Sankaran Namboothriripad, popularly known as EMS. After explaining the nature of 'revolution' he taught his comrades: "It is foolish to think that this process will take place through non-violent means"23.

Considering the value system of Kerala, which formed as a basis for the unique 'Kerala Model', the question of whether such a statement representing the means of communism is to be taken as progressive or regressive, is left to the reader. Here is one more clue to get the answer: A recent article by an economist (reference 19) bears the title "Kerala is no model of development". One of the reasons cited by the author to justify his claim of "Kerala is fast losing its credentials as a model" is that "the coalition politics of Kerala with innumerable small parties aligned on either side of two fronts, the United Democratic Front led by the Indian National Congress and the Left Democratic Front led by the Communist Party (Marxist) has vitiated the character of democratic politics in the State".

Looking at through the perspective of social sciences, there is one more norm to assess what the advent of communism tried to inculcate in the psyche of Kerala-progress or regress? 'New politics' and 'old politics' are phrases in usage to define characteristics of social movements. 'New politics', emerged during 1960s, denotes social movements centered on quality of life, individual self-realisation, human rights etc. 'Old politics' focus on economics, politics and military security. With these definitions as the yardstick, the social movements of Kerala during the 'renaissance' period were 'new' and communism, as an ideology itself give stress to the 'old'! It does not mean that the 'new politics' of Kerala, in pre-independent India, ignored economics and politics in toto. Kerala has a history of organized 'proletarian' movements for protecting the rights of workers of agricultural and industrial sectors, even before the formation of a four member 'communist group' in 1937. But those too were mediated on the ethical and cultural ambience prevailed at that time, not on the officially approved violent methodology of communists.

Sree Narayana Guru

23. EMS Namboothiripad. (2008). 'A Text book of Marxism' (in Malayalam). Chintha publishers. P 104

Sree Narayana Guru

XVII. The Washington Post : May 20, 1979.

The stage is now set to find a direct answer to the question of why the efficient plant of corona virus control of Kerala can't be transplanted and bear fruits elsewhere. The efficiency is the flowering in a scion, grafted on just one branch of a healthy root stock. A unique factor of this root stock is the transformation of Kerala through a process, sometimes described as 'Kerala Renaissance', that emerged during late nineteen century and rebuilt the social fabric during early twentieth century, well before the formation of the State of Kerala.

'Kerala Renaissance' is a unique, dominantly socio-cultural process, the result of dedicated efforts of an army of great lovers of humanity, with Guru Narayana as its master architect. Behind the visible socio-cultural trunk of it lies the invisible roots of a value system. "The understanding of social reality is inextricably linked to that of reflective consciousness"24 and so this value system and the philosophy behind it can be seen as the unique contributing factor of Kerala renaissance. One of the central themes of this philosophy is:

         All beings, at all times, everywhere, are exerting themselves to attain happiness.
         This quest for happiness is the one single religion in the world, of which no one has any dispute.
         Knowing this, one should not be lured into sin of fighting one's own fellow beings. (Atmopadesasatakam-49)

This is not just a metaphysical elucidation of an armchair theory, but a guideline and a norm for the very practical purposes of living, here and now. It reflects the oneness of humanity, rooted in happiness as the prime motive of life. This 'religion' incorporates the Wisdom of Hindus, Compassion of Budha, Love of Jesus and Brotherhood of Prophet Mohammed Nabi.

It contains the seeds of an economic theory also. A luminary of economics, K.N.Raj* once wrote: "In fact, even a pure philosopher and religious thinker like Sree Narayana Guru, who achieved a social transformation in Kerala, spoke about the very same things that welfare economists speak about today: education, health care facilities, even small-scale industries...". The 'economics' of Guru Narayana is not a mere mathematical model of demand and supply or Gross Domestic Product. It is an outcome of the searchlight of introspection, centered on inner growth rather than material progress; cooperation and coexistence in the place of competition and displaces the economic perspective of life with a deep ecological perspective of economics. A guide line to develop an economic theory along these lines had been framed by his disciple Guru Nataraja25 under the title "Towards A One World Economics".

Four decades ago, on May 20, 1979, 'The Washington Post' raised a concern: "Ambitious economists elaborate elegant mathematical solutions to theoretical problems with little if any relevance to public issues".26 The 'economics' of Guru Narayana offers a solution to this concern. During his life time itself, the journal 'The Sufi Quarterly', published from Geneva, wrote about Guru Narayana: "it can be asserted that he has set in motion a force which is bound to spread into a new impetus for the regeneration of India and the World"27. There is certain inherent connection between this solution and the 'why' of the issue stated in the post of 'The Washington Post', quoting which this narration opened.

The impetus of 'Kerala Renaissance' forms the roots and trunk on which the scion of efficient management of corona virus control by Kerala govt. has been grafted and so planting this unique root system is inevitable to graft the efficiency. This is the answer to the 'why' of 'The Washington Post' report of 14th April 2020: "But it may not be easy to replicate Kerala's lessons elsewhere in India". Let us plant the unique root system of Kerala all over the world, not only for grafting the corona control model of Kerala, but also to build a 'Global Model' of life in the post corona world, based on the lessons from the 'Kerala Model'.

Sree Narayana Guru

24. Fritjof Capra. (2003). 'The Hidden Connections'. Flamingo. P 63.
25. Nataraja Guru. (1996). 'Experiencing One World'. DK Printworld. New delhi. Part II.
26. cited in Fritjof Capra. (1982). Page 198.
27. The Sufi Quarterly, January 1928. Sufi.Pub.Assoc., Geneva.

* Dr.K.N.Raj (1924-2010), an alumnus of London School of Economics, was the Vice Chancellor of Delhi University and the economic advisor of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He was also one of the master minds of the Five Year Plans of India. The quote is from the Wikipedia page on K.N.Raj.

1. All highlights are given by the present author.
2. There are differences of opinion about the usage of the phrase "Kerala Model". Here the main purpose of this phrase is to convince and convey the fact that Kerala has something unique of its own to offer the world. The debate on whether it is a model or a mere experience belongs to a different domain.

Sree Narayana Guru

Note: Contact the author through phone no: +91 94478 63335 or email to Dr.P.K.Sabu (pksabu@yahoo.com)

Sree Narayana Guru

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